The Canons of Statutory Construction are cheat sheets for judges to determine what a statute means. Critics say they are contradictory and can be used to create any meaning. Nonetheless, it is a rare judge who does not refer to them. I am apparently the "Plain Meaning Rule."
Test yourself here.
Hat tip to The Volokh Conspiracy.
[Ed. note - I am the "Rule of Lenity" which explains my letting JJV have his way with my blog.]